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Preparing for tests

The recommendations of your doctor for preparation are top priority!
Blood tests

In order to avoid factors that can distort the results, you should:

  • Fast for 6 to 12 hours before test.
  • Drink some still water before blood sampling.
  • Avoid alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity for up to 12 hours.
  • Stop taking your medicine before having a blood test. If you should keep taking your medicine as prescribed, please, inform about it the laboratory person.
  • Children up to 5 years of age – It’s advisable to have some boiled water (150-200 mL during 30 min before test.
  • Nursing babies – It’s advisable to make as long as possible interval between feeding and blood sampling.

Prolactin

Sampling should be done in the morning, up to 2 hours after waking up.
You should:

  • be calm
  • avoid breast palpation before test

Testosterone, Aldosterone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

  • Due to circadian rhythm it’s advisable to take a blood test until 10 a.m.

Total Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

  • Blood sampling is recommended to be performed on the empty stomach in the morning. It can also be performed during the day if you avoid eating fatty food and fast up to 6 hours.
  • Refrain from ejaculation for 48 hours.
  • Three days before test it’s advisable to exclude any urological procedures, rectal exam, ergometry, cystoscopy, colonoscopy and prostate massage. It’s desirable to have the test three weeks after the prostate biopsy.
  • It’s recommended to refrain from physical exercises that have the impact on prostate gland (cycling) and heat impacts (sauna, hot bath) for 3 days before taking the material.

Prothrombin index (PTI)

  • It’s desirable to repeat PTI test at the same time
  • On the day of blood sampling you shouldn’t break hormonal drugs intake, if your consulting physician didn’t give you such recommendation.

Urine tests

Before urine sampling you should:

  • wash the external genital parts (men should open glans penis)
  • women insert a tampon into the vagina.

How do you collect a urine sample from a baby? – After external genital parts wash it’s advisable to sample urine into pediatric urine collector. Urine pressed out of a diapie is not researchable. Urine should be sampled into a special sterile container or washed clean glass container.

Clinical urinalysis

  • All morning portion of urine should be collected in a dry clean, washed off cleaning detergents and disinfectants, plastic or glass container with a volume of at least 2 liters. Then at least 10 ml of urine is poured into a sterile disposable container and delivered to the laboratory on the same day.
  • The container with urine should be tightly closed with a lid and, put into clean disposable bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Urine test by Nechiporenko

  • The midstream morning urine is sampled.
  • Urine is collected into clean dry plastic or glass container with a volume of 15 – 25 ml.
  • The container with urine should be tightly closed with a lid and delivered to the laboratory, put into clean disposable bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Urine glucose test

  • The daily portion of urine is examined.
  • The daily urine is collected in a dry clean container. It’s advisable to use dark glass container or to store it in a dark bag. The urine should be stored in a cool place (ideally on the bottom shelf of the fridge at 2 – 8° centigrade) without freezing.
  • When the daily portion of urine is collected, you should measure its volume, thoroughly blend it and pour its 100 – 150 ml into sterile disposable container. Write down the full volume of sampled urine (daily diuresis) on the container. The container with urine should be tightly closed with a lid, put into clean disposable bag, and delivered to the laboratory.

Urine test for cortisol

  • Daily urine is sampled for this study.
  • Urine is collected for 24 hours keeping regular drinking regime.
  • When you wake up in the morning you should void your bladder. This first morning dose of urine is released into the toilet.
  • All the next urine is collected within 24 hours in a clean container with a volume of at least 2 liters.
  • The urine should be stored in a cool place without freezing (ideally on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator at the temperature of 4 - 8 °С).
  • The last dose of urine should be collected next day at the same time when sampling was started (the time when you void your bladder).
  • When the daily portion of urine is collected, you should measure its volume, thoroughly blend it and pour its 100 – 150 ml into sterile disposable container.
  • You should write down the full volume of sampled urine (daily diuresis) on the container.
  • The container with urine should be tightly closed with a lid, put into clean disposable bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Feces tests

Feces collected after natural bowel movement are examined.
If you are going to have both coprogram and feces test for helminth eggs you may collect feces in one sterile disposable container.

Attention: feces collected after enema or the intake of rectal suppositories and oils cannot be examined!

Coprogram, calprotectin, pancreatic elastase

Fresh feces are collected in a sterile disposable container with a volume of 10 – 15 grams.

The container with urine should be tightly closed with a lid, put into clean disposable bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Fecal occult blood test

Fresh feces are collected in a sterile disposable container with a volume of 10 – 15 grams and delivered to the laboratory on the same day.

For 2 weeks it is necessary to exclude instrumental examinations of the gastrointestinal tract or medical procedures (colonoscopy, rectoromanoscopy, enema, etc.)

It is not recommended to do fecal examination:

  • during menstruation;
  • if hemorrhoidal tumor bleeds;
  • if you have hematuria;
  • if you strained too much during a bowel movement;
  • if there is an admixture of urine or genital secretions.

Feces test for intestinal parasites

Samples should be collected from the latest portion of feces.

The sampled feces should be taken from different parts of the latest portion with a volume of 10 – 15 grams.

Fresh feces are collected in a sterile disposable container.

The container with urine should be tightly closed with a lid, put into clean disposable bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Scraping on pinworm eggs (enterobiosis)

The procedure is carried out in the morning after waking up, without getting out of bed, before hygiene procedures and bowel movements.

With the help of tight cellulose acetate tape (size of glass slide) you should make a scrap from perianal folds. Stick a carrier liner of the tape to the folds then stick it on the clean glass slide.

Glass slide with the material should be put into clean disposable bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Attention: Don’t use mat or coloured tape for sampling!

Semen analysis

The test of the material is possible only at the point attached to the laboratory and by pre-appointment at 20-500-20 (Kyiv), 0-800-50-70-30 (call free of charge from all mobiles).

  • From 48 hours to 5 days (not more) the patient should refrain from ejaculation.
  • During this period, it is necessary to exclude the use of medicinal drags (hormonal and antianxiety drugs, opiates), drinking alcohol (including beer), eating spicy and fatty foods, smoking.
  • Exclude heat affect on the area of genital organs for 24-hour period. Don’t visit baths or sauna, solarium, don’t take a hot bath, don’t have UHF therapy.

Attention: If your semen test results fall out of the normal range it is recommended to have semen test again in 1-2 weeks. Before a retest it is necessary to keep to all rules for preparing for the test.

Postcoital test (sample Shuvarskogo)

Postcoital test was designed to assess the quantity and mobility of the sperm in the cervical mucus several hours after sexual intercourse. It is critically important to test the material in the proper time. The test of the material is possible ONLY for WOMEN. The material is the cervical mucus.

Attention: The test of the material is possible only at the point attached to the laboratory.

  • Перед забором материала не промывать и не полоскать нос.
  • В течение 4–5 часов до момента забора материала не закапывать нос лекарственными препаратами.

Nasal Cytology

Nasal cytology (rhinocytogram) is nasal cytologic screening.

  • Before the sampling it is recommended to exclude nasal irrigation and gargling.
  • For 4 – 5 hours before sampling it is necessary to exclude nasal medication.

Test for Demodex

Test for Demodex is epithelial scraping from eyelashes, eyebrows, papules. Samples should be delivered to the laboratory.

  • For three days before sampling you should not wash up with decorative cosmetics, use personal hygiene products with a high content of alkali, various creams, topical medicines.
  • For 24-hours before sampling you should not wash up with water.

Eyelashes

  • Eight eyelashes from each eye (four from the upper eyelid and four from the lower eyelid) should be selected with the help of tweezers.
  • Eyelashes should be placed on a slide. Then it is necessary to drop 10 – 20 % alkali liquor or glycerin on the samples and lay them over with another slide.
  • Particles can be collected into a dry Eppendorf tube as well.
  • The slide/Eppendorf tube with material should be put into zip top bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Eyebrows

  • Eight eyebrows (four from each brow) should be selected with the help of tweezers and placed on a slide.
  • It is necessary to drop 10 – 20 % alkali liquor or glycerin on the samples and lay them over with another slide.
  • Particles can be collected into a dry Eppendorf tube as well.
  • The slide/Eppendorf tube with material should be put into zip top bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Skin scraping

  • The procedure is carried out at night before retiring to bed. Stick a cellulose acetate tape (size of glass slide) on the affected area of skin.
  • In the morning you should unstick the tape from the affected area of skin and place it between two slides.
  • Slides with material should be put into zip top bag and delivered to the laboratory.

Content of papules

  • Scraping is carried out carefully from the affected area of skin with the help of lancet. It’s also possible to pop a pimple with the help of special instrument.
  • Put the material on a slide.
  • Drop 10 – 20 % alkali liquor or glycerin on the sample and lay it over with another slide.
  • Slides with material should be put into zip top bag and delivered to the laboratory.

PCR tests

COVID-19 (PCR)

COVID-19 (PCR)

  • Do not use nasal drops, rinse or rinse the nasal passages for 4–5 hours before sampling.
  • Take the material on an empty stomach or 3-4 hours after eating and drinking.
  • It is not recommended to brush your teeth, rinse your mouth/throat, or smoke for 3-4 hours before taking the material.

Saliva (PCR)

  • Before test it’s advisable to exclude eating and drinking alcohol.
  • Four hours before test, don’t take medicines.
  • Before test it’s recommended to rinse your mouth three times.

Buccal scraping (PCR)

  • Sampling is recommended to be performed on an empty stomach or in 2 – 4 hours after a meal.
  • Before sampling it’s necessary to rinse your mouth with boiled water.
  • After rinsing it’s recommended to massage your cheek for gland discharge.

Oropharyngeal material (PCR)

  • Sampling is recommended to be performed on an empty stomach or in 2 – 4 hours after a meal.
  • Before sampling it’s necessary to rinse your mouth with boiled water.

Liquor (PCR, material should be delivered to the laboratory)

Cerebrospinal fluid (liquor) is collected in a sterile disposable tube with the help of a disposable needle in the quantity of at least 1 ml (it’s possible to collect more material). The tube should be tightly closed with a lid and delivered to the laboratory.

Urine (PCR, material should be delivered to the laboratory)

Before starting the sampling, it is necessary to wash thoroughly hands and external sex organs, then wipe them dry with clean towel.

For women: to prevent urine and vaginal discharge contamination it is recommended to insert a tampon before sampling. It is not recommended to take samples during menstruation.

For men: during urination it is necessary to pull back skinfold and expose urethral orifice.

Rules for sampling:

  • First pass urine is sampled for the study. Urine is collected in a sterile disposable container with a volume 15 – 25 ml.
  • The container with urine collected without adding boric acid should be stored at the temperature of +2–8 °С and delivered to the laboratory within 24 hours.
  • Urine in the container with boric acid can be stored at room temperature and should be delivered to the laboratory within 48 hours.

Semen (PCR, material should be delivered to the laboratory)

  • Before test, it is not recommended to visit baths or sauna, drink alcohol, eat spicy food, take medicine.
  • For 3 days you should refrain from ejaculation.
  • For 2 – 3 hours you should refrain from urinating.
Rules for sampling:
  • Semen is collected in a dry sterile disposable container / Eppendorf.
  • Before sampling you should have a careful toilet of penis head and external urethral orifice.
  • For sterile sampling, a container / Eppendorf should be closed with a lid. Take the lid off just before ejaculation.
  • The material should be delivered to the laboratory no later than 6 hours (if it is stored at room temperature) or 24 hours (if it is stored at the temperature of +2–8 °С) after its sampling.

Prostate gland discharge (PCR, material should be delivered to the laboratory)

  • Before test, it is not recommended to visit baths or sauna, drink alcohol, eat spicy food, take medicine.
  • For 3 days you should refrain from ejaculation.
  • For 2 – 3 hours you should refrain from urinating.
Rules for sampling:
  • Material should be collected after prostate milking.
  • Before sampling it is necessary to treat penis head with sterile cotton plug.
  • Discharge is collected in a dry sterile disposable container / Eppendorf in the quantity of 0,5 – 1 ml.
The material should be delivered to the laboratory no later than 6 hours (if it is stored at room temperature) or 24 hours (if it is stored at the temperature of +2–8 °С) after its sampling.

Urogenital material (PCR)

  • Three days before the test it is desirable to exclude sexual intercourse.
  • You need to refrain from urinating for 3 hours before taking the material.
  • It is important to exclude the use of antibacterial drugs for 14 days.
  • The test of urogenital material of children under 18 years of age is performed by a doctor. Material should be delivered to the laboratory.
  • For men: it is necessary to refrain from ejaculation for 3 days.
  • For women: for 3 days it is recommended to exclude douching and intake of vaginal suppositories, creams, tampons. It is forbidden to take a test during menstruation (it is advised to take it 3 days after the end of menstruation).

Varicella-zoster virus (PCR, material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • The content of vesicle should be collected no later than 3 days after blotches appeared. Material collected later contains too poor concentration of virus.
  • Before sampling it is necessary to clean blotches using a cotton plug wet with alcohol.
  • Then it is necessary to puncture a vesicle with a sterile needle and collect specimens with a help of a sterile tuberculin syringe.
  • Material should be removed from syringe into tube with transport medium (Eppendorf with transparent medium). Syringe should be washed several times with transport medium of tube.
  • Material collected in Eppendorf with transparent medium should be delivered to the laboratory no later than 6 hours (if it is stored at room temperature) or 3 days (if it is stored at the temperature of +2–8 °С) after its sampling.

General clinic urogenital tests

  • Three days before the test it is desirable to exclude sexual intercourse.
  • It is important to exclude the use of antibacterial drugs for 14 days.
  • For women: for 3 days it is recommended to exclude douching and intake of vaginal suppositories, creams, tampons.
  • For men: it is necessary to refrain from ejaculation for 3 days.
  • The test of urogenital material of children under 18 years of age, pregnant women and virgins is performed by a doctor. Material should be delivered to the laboratory.

Colpocytology (“hormonal mirror”)

  • The test is just for women.
  • A four-time study is recommended: on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th day of menstruation.

Cytology for atypical cells (smear on the glass)

  • The test is just for women.
  • It is forbidden to take a test during menstruation (it is advised to take it 3 days after the end of menstruation).

PAP test (liquid-based cytology)

  • Material for test is scraping from the whole surface of exocervix (“transformation zone”), cervical canal, and visually affected area, if it is necessary.
  • Women are advised to take a test from 10th to 20th day of menstrual cycle.

Urogenital smear for the microflora (on glass)

  • The test is for both women and men.
  • It is forbidden to take a test during menstruation (it is advised to take it 3 days after the end of menstruation).

Bacteriological tests

The test is recommended to pass before the use of antibacterial, immunobiological and antifungal drugs.

For treatment control (when the treatment course is over):

  • If you do not use immunobiological drugs, it is recommended to have a test in 5 – 7 days.
  • If you use immunobiological drugs, it is recommended to have a test at least 14 days after treatment termination.

Bacteriological test of urogenital material

  • Three days before the test it is desirable to exclude sexual intercourse.
  • For 3 days it is recommended to exclude douching and intake of vaginal suppositories, creams, tampons.
  • The test of urogenital material of children under 18 years of age, pregnant women and virgins is performed by a doctor. Material should be delivered to the laboratory.
  • For women: It is forbidden to take a test during menstruation (it is advised to take it 3 days after the end of menstruation).
  • For men: it is necessary to refrain from ejaculation for 3 days.

Bacteriological test of eye discharge (medical manipulation, material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • For 6 – 8 hours (at night) before taking the material it is important to exclude the use of medicines and procedures (both general and local).
  • Don’t wash your face on the day of sampling.
  • Material from each eye should be collected in individual container, marked “right eye” or “left eye” and delivered to the laboratory.

Bacteriological test of contaminated wound (medical manipulation, material should be delivered to laboratory)

For 6 – 8 hours (at night) before taking the material it is important to exclude any procedures, the use of medicines and antibacterial dressings.

Bacteriological test of maternal milk (material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • Before the sampling it is necessary to massage thickened area of breast.
  • Before expressing milk, it is recommended to wash your hands and breast carefully with soap and boiled water. Pat them dry with a sterile tissue. Wipe down nipples and area near them (starting from nipples) with cotton plug wet with 70% alcohol. Wait for alcohol to vaporize in 1 – 2 min.
  • The sampling is carried out in sterile screw cap containers. It is necessary to use 2 containers: the first is for milk from the left breast, the second is for milk from the right one.
  • Mark containers: “left breast” and “right breast”.
  • Open container. Put a cap on the container. Don’t touch internal surface of cap and container.
  • Express first 5 – 10 ml in separate container (this dose is useless for test). Express next 8 – 10 ml in a sterile container. Try to not touch the container.
  • Each container with milk should be screwed with the cap, put into a separate clean disposable bag, and immediately delivered to the laboratory.

Feces bacteriological test for dysbacteriosis (material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • For 2 – 3 days before test, it is advised to exclude fermented foods, cultured milk products and alcohol.
  • Material is collected in a sterile screw cap container with spoon.
  • Morning portion of feces is sampled immediately after defecation. It is forbidden to collect specimen from a toilet.
  • Defecation should be done on sterile surface washed carefully with soap and sponge, many times rinsed with tap water, then with boiling water and cooled. It is forbidden to use sanitizers.
  • Feces are collected in a sterile container with a spoon from the middle of defecation with a volume of at most 10 g (a teaspoon). Do not fill a container to the top.
  • A container with the material should be tightly screwed with the cap, put into a clean disposable zip top bag, and delivered to the laboratory no later than 2 hours after its sampling.

Attention: testing cannot be done if:

  • Material is collected from bedlinen, baby linen, nappies (material exsiccates, and test can give some false results).
  • Container is filled to the top (there is a risk of air infection contamination at the container opening at the laboratory).

Bacteriological test of semen (material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • For 3 days it is necessary to refrain from ejaculation.
  • For 24 hours it is recommended to exclude thermal influence on genital area – baths or sauna.
  • Before sampling you should have a careful toilet of penis head and external urethral orifice. It is necessary to wash penis head (foreskin should be pulled back) with sterile cotton plug using warm boiled water and baby soap. Rinse it with sterile distilled water or sodium chloride. Get it dry with a sterile guaze wipe.
  • For sterile sampling, a container should be closed with a lid. Take the lid off just before ejaculation.
  • During ejaculation it is advised to exclude a contact with internal surface of lid and container. Dirt and microorganisms shouldn’t get into internal environment of the container.
  • After ejaculation it is forbidden to squeeze the last drops of semen out or shake them off from hands or penis head into a container.
  • Material collected in a container should be delivered to the laboratory in 2 hours after its sampling.

Bacteriological test of prostate gland discharge (medical manipulation, material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • For 3 days it is necessary to refrain from ejaculation.
  • For 24 hours it is recommended to exclude thermal influence on genital area – baths or sauna.
  • Native material collected in a container should be delivered to the laboratory in 2 hours after its sampling.
  • If there is small amount of material it is permitted the use of Amies transport swab applicator. It is necessary to wet an applicator with samples collected in the container. Then the applicator should be dipped in transport medium and delivered to the laboratory in 24 hours after its sampling.

Bacteriological test of urine (material should be delivered to laboratory)

  • Before starting the sampling, it is necessary to wash thoroughly external sex organs.
  • Don’t use urinary catheterization for sampling it can cause urogenital tract infection.

Rules for sampling:

  • It is necessary to wash thoroughly hands and external sex organs, then wipe them dry with paper or cotton towel.
  • For test it is necessary to collect the average portion of urine with a volume of 40 – 50 ml. For this, the first portion of urine is released into the toilet, the middle one into the prepared container, the latter into the toilet.
  • Clinical native material is stored in a container without boric acid at the room temperature and should be delivered to the laboratory in 2 hours after sampling.
  • Urine in the container with boric acid can be stored at room temperature and should be delivered to the laboratory in 48 hours after sampling.

Feces bacteriological test for pathogenic intestinal flora + antibiogram (material should be delivered to laboratory)

For 2 – 3 days before test, it is advised to exclude fermented foods, cultured milk products and alcohol.

Rules for sampling:

  • Morning portion of feces is sampled immediately after defecation. It is forbidden to collect specimen from a toilet.
  • Defecation should be done on sterile surface.
  • Feces is collected with a swab mostly from the middle of defecation.
  • Open a tube with Cary Blair transport medium and put a swab with specimen in it. Tightly close the tube.

Attention: material collected from bedlinen, baby linen, nappies (material exsiccates, and test can give some false results) cannot be tested.

Bacteriological test of throat material

Throat swab is carried out on an empty stomach or in 3 – 4 hours after a meal.

Bacteriological test of nasal material

Before sampling it is forbidden to do nasal irrigation.

Bacteriological test of sputum + antibiogram (material should be delivered to laboratory)

For better sputum passage it is recommended to drink more water before sampling. If it is hard to cough up phlegm, doctor can recommend you the use of expectorants or sodium chloride inhalation before sampling.

  • Sampling is performed on the empty stomach in the morning.
  • For 4 hours it is advisable to exclude eating and drinking alcohol, the use of medicines and smoking.
  • Before sampling the sputum, you should brush your teeth, gums, tongue and buccal mucosa with toothbrush and rinse the mouth with boiled water.
  • Take three deep breaths and clear out your throat.
  • Samples are collected in a sterile disposable impact resistant and leakproof container.
  • Storage and transportation requirements of collected material:
  • Clinical material is stored at the room temperature (+15–22 °С) in 2 hours after sampling.
  • At the temperature of +2–8 °С it can be stored up to 6 hours after sampling.
  • Material should be delivered to the laboratory in an insulated container without cooling elements. In summer period an insulated container with cooling elements should be used.

Other material that should be delivered to laboratory

The material should be collected by the doctor.

Saliva test for cortisol (samples are collected in the Salivette)

Factors that affect cortisol in saliva:

Gum microbleeding can course an increase of cortisol because of blood and saliva blending.

Doctor specified the time for sampling according to clinical aims.

If doctor does not give any recommendations, Synevo laboratory advises to take samples at 11 PM.

  • For 30 minutes before sampling it is recommended to exclude eating, smoking, brushing teeth and drinking.
  • For 24 hours it is necessary to exclude drinking alcohol.
  • It is necessary to exclude contamination of saliva with lipstick.
  • It is necessary to exclude contamination with blood (even slightly red samples).

Other material that should be delivered to laboratory

The material should be collected by the doctor.

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